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    M o d e r a t o r ethanedwards's Avatar
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    Western Musicals- Oklahoma! (1955)

    OKLAHOMA!

    DIRECTED BY FRED ZINNEMANN
    PRODUCED BY ARTHUR HORNBLOWER Jr.
    OSCAR HAMMERSTEIN II/ RICHARD ROGERS
    MAGNA THEATRE CORPORATION
    RODGERS & HAMMERSTEIN PICTURES
    RKO RADIO PICTURES/ TWENTIETH CENURY FOX FILM CORPORATION

    ..

    Information from IMDb

    Plot Summary
    In the Oklahoma territory at the turn of the twentieth century,
    two young cowboys vie with an evil ranch hand and a traveling peddler
    for the hearts of the women they love.
    Written by Scott Lane

    Full Cast
    Gordon MacRae ... Curly McLain
    Gloria Grahame ... Ado Annie Carnes
    Gene Nelson ... Will Parker
    Charlotte Greenwood ... Aunt Eller
    Shirley Jones ... Laurey Williams
    Eddie Albert ... Ali Hakim
    James Whitmore ... Mr. Carnes
    Rod Steiger ... Jud Fry
    Barbara Lawrence ... Gertie Cummings
    Jay C. Flippen ... Skidmore
    Roy Barcroft ... Marshal
    James Mitchell ... Dream Curly / Dancer
    Bambi Linn ... Dream Laurey / Dancer
    Jennie Workman ... Dancer
    Virginia Bosler ... Dancer
    Kelly Brown ... Dancer
    Evelyn Taylor ... Dancer
    Lizanne Truex ... Dancer
    Jane Fischer ... Dancer
    Marc Platt ... Dancer
    Jerry Dealey ... Dancer (uncredited)
    Al Ferguson ... Cowboy at Auction (uncredited)
    Ben Johnson ... Wrangler (uncredited)
    Donald Kerr ... Farmer at Dance (uncredited)
    Nancy Kilgas ... Dancer (uncredited)
    Rory Mallinson ... Young Cowboy at Box Lunch Auction (uncredited)
    Buddy Roosevelt ... Cowboy at Auction (uncredited)
    Russell Simpson ... The Minister (uncredited)
    Dolores Starr ... Dancer (uncredited)

    Writing Credits
    Sonya Levien (screen play) and
    William Ludwig (screen play)
    Lynn Riggs (based upon a dramatic play by)

    Cinematography
    Robert Surtees

    Trivia
    This is the first Todd-AO production and the first of three such productions to be shot twice, first at 24 fps (to produce the general-release version in 35 mm) and finally at 30 fps (to produce the roadshow version in 70 mm). The 35 mm version is presented in CinemaScope; the 70 mm version is presented in Todd-AO.

    Shot on location in and around Sonoita, Arizona, because the real Oklahoma in 1955 was so heavily farmed and developed that few suitable areas could be found that resembled the highly-rural and undeveloped Oklahoma of the turn of the century when the musical is set.

    This was Fred Zinnemann's first musical, and it cost a then-astronomical $6.8 million.

    The song "Lonely Room" (sung by Jud) was omitted from the film. In the song, Jud explains his bitter resentments and deep frustrations. Possibly this was considered too strong for 1955 film-goers.

    Based on the play "Green Grow the Lilacs" by Lynn Riggs, a part-Cherokee playwright born in Oklahoma.

    The general release version, shot in CinemaScope, is the one that played most theatres throughout the USA. This version was not released until late 1956, after the first-run Todd-AO version had played New York for more than a year and after the film versions of two other Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II stage musicals, "Carousel" and "The King and I", had already been released throughout the United States.

    The song "Kansas City" was edited for censors. Will sang it, "I could swear that she was padded from her shoulders to her heel. And then she started dancing and her dancing made me feel that every single thing she had was absolutely real." In the original play script it went, "I could swear that she was padded from her shoulders to her heels. And later in the second act when she began to peel. She proved that everything she had was absolutely real."

    Although James Mitchell and Bambi Linn danced the parts of Curly and Laury in the Dream Ballet, Rod Steiger did his own dancing in that sequence because there was no one who looked enough like him from the back. Despite his initial uncertainties, and after considerable coaching from choreographer Agnes de Mille, Steiger actually did a credible job, later calling it one of the biggest challenges he ever had.

    James Mitchell was working on The Prodigal at the same time as the dream ballet.

    The world premiere was preceded by a parade of fringed surreys, led by then-Oklahoma Gov. Raymond Gary (1908-1993, governor 1955-1959), which made its way from the St. James Theater, where the stage version of "Oklahoma" had opened 12 years earlier, to the Rivoli Theater for the film premiere. There, standing atop a carpet of transplanted Oklahoma soil, Gov. Gary helped raise the Oklahoma state flag from the theater staff and officially proclaimed the Rivoli to be Oklahoma territory.

    The original Broadway production of "Oklahoma!" opened at the St. James Theater in New York City on May 31, 1943 and ran for 2,212 performances, setting a record for a musical.
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    The musical that this film is based on was originally entitled "Away We Go!" The title was changed to "Oklahoma!" after the popularity of that song with the play's initial audiences. It was the first Broadway musical in which every single song had a direct relation to the plot, and in which there were none that were simply musical interludes. (Even "Show Boat", which actually is the first Broadway musical in which most of the songs have a direct relation to the plot, originally had one or two numbers which were simply thrown in so that something could be going on while the scenery was being changed, or even to suit certain cast members who perforned "specialties" in the original 1927 production. These specialties were deleted from later productions of "Show Boat".)

    The film's soundtrack album became one of the most successful movie albums ever released, more successful than the 1943 original Broadway cast album of "Oklahoma!", although the Broadway production was the biggest stage hit of its time, and for many years after. The film soundtrack album continues to be a popular seller even to this day.

    The song "It's a Scandal! It's a Outrage!" was omitted from the film. It was sung by Ali Hakim and the Male Chorus, and they expressed their "outrage" at "fathers with shotguns" in the song.

    Nogales, Arizona, was declared an honorary part of Oklahoma for the period of shooting, by the governor.

    Finding "corn as high as an elephant's eye" proved to be quite a challenge. Since filming was to take place out of season, no tall cornfields were to be found anywhere. The job was given to the people of the University of Arizona Agricultural Department, who planted each stalk in individual containers and held their breath. With rain and good luck, the corn grew to a height of 16 feet, causing Oscar Hammerstein to quip: "The corn is now as high as the eye of an elephant on top of another elephant."

    Eli Wallach was at one point suggested for the role of Jud Fry, as was Marlon Brando.

    Joanne Woodward was considered for the role of Laurey Williams.

    Filmed in both CinemaScope and Todd-AO. When both films are seen together, subtle differences may be discerned in such areas as line readings and overall pacing.

    In the Todd-AO version of the movie, there is more picture visible in the periphery than in the CinemaScope version. While the peripheral picture on each side of the main action is very detailed, it is visibly distorted at times when there is physical action such as movement on the periphery in long-shots.

    Betty Hutton turned down the role of Ado Annie, a role that could have revived her screen career. She instead chose to do a TV special called Satins and Spurs.

    In Sheila MacRae's autobiographical book "Hollywood Mother of the Year" in her chapter titled, "Curly, Billy, and Me", she revealed that Gordon MacRae had very few waves in his hair. This posed a problem since he would be playing a man who got his nickname from his curly locks. Movie hairdressers tried to fix it but Oscar Hammerstein was unhappy with the results and suggested that Gordon get a permanent. Gordon refused but instead agreed to allow his wife Sheila to finger-curl his hair each morning so his character's name, Curly, was believable.

    Tone deaf, Gloria Grahame, who played Ado Annie, sang without dubbing, which required that her songs to be edited together from recordings made almost literally note by note.

    Marc Platt and Bambi Linn are the only cast members from the original Broadway stage production to appear in the film, but they do not perform their original stage roles.

    Shirley Jones' film debut.

    The two teens infatuated with Will Parker were an invention of director Fred Zinnemann and choreographer Agnes de Mille. Lizanne Truex (blonde) and Jane Fischer (brunette) were originally slated to appear only in the "Kansas City" routine. Zinneman and de Mille liked the girls' work so much that they decided to add them - and their characters "The Goon Girls" - to the entire film. Zinnemann wanted the part of "Ado Annie" to be played comically, but Gloria Grahame kept putting a sexy twist to the part, so he told the "Goon Girls" that he would use them more extensively as comic relief to compensate for Ms. Grahame's interpretation. They appeared in every dance scene and had more screen time than some of the co-stars. Since the girls were going to have so much exposure, there was some discussion as to what to call them. Zinnemann said that because they were always "gooning" (fooling) around, they should be called "Goon Girls", and the epithet was born. Truex also had three one-liners, somewhat unusual for ensemble dancers. While waiting for the film to be released, she joined the European tour of the stage version of "Oklahoma!" which starred Shirley Jones and her then-husband, Jack Cassidy. In this tour, Ms. Truex played the role of "The Girl Who Falls Down," performed in the film by Virginia Bosler.

    The ending scene in the "Kansas City" routine proved to be rewarding for the "Goon Girls" (Lizanne Truex and Jane Fischer). Jumping off a moving train into the arms of the waiting cowboys entailed perfect timing. Just before the first take, a union representative called for an "adjustment", which turned out to be an additional $250 for each jump because of the hazard. Seven takes later, director Fred Zinnemann was satisfied, leading Lizanne Truex to remark that they must remember to call "Adjustment!" more often as she had a 1951 Ford to pay off.

    The poignant scene in "Many a New Day", where the blonde "Goon Girl" Lizanne Truex rests her head on the shoulder of Shirley Jones, came on the 43rd take. Director Fred Zinnemann was unhappy with the way the girls gathered around Ms. Jones, and he came up with this idea.

    When asked about her distinctive haircut in the film, Lizanne Truex said that because of the innocent tomboyish behavior of her "Goon Girl" character, the studio hair stylist changed her "Pixie Cut" to a "Bowl Cut" - "Like the little kids of the period were given." During the filming, she was primping before a mirror backstage, bemoaning the results, with Jane Fischer looking on. Director Fred Zinnemann included that charming vignette in the "Many a New Day" dance routine at the suggestion of Agnes de Mille, who happened to see the incident and liked what she saw.

    The interiors were shot at MGM in autumn of 1954, the first time that an outside production company not releasing through MGM was allowed to film a feature there.

    Michael Todd had seen Shirley Jones in a touring performance of Oklahoma and suggested she be cast as Laurey for the film version.

    Allene Roberts auditioned for the role of Laurey Williams.

    The 1970 USTV premiere of this film was on CBS and hosted by the cast of the network's popular series "Family Affair": Brian Keith, Sebastian Cabot, Anissa Jones, Johnnie Whitaker, and Cathy Garver. Presented in character, the wrap-arounds involved the fictional Davis family viewing and commenting on the film.

    In her autobiography 'Playing the Field', Mamie Van Doren recalls her campaign to play Ado Annie. Van Doren claims one of the reasons she lost the part was that her acting coach, who happened to be Gloria Grahame's mother, mentioned Van Doren's interest in the part to her daughter; Grahame suddenly became interested in playing the part herself, launching a campaign of her own to win the part--which she did.

    The movie was purposely filmed with very little camera movement, and editing, to give it the Broadway feel. (Actors occasionally stumble over a line like on stage.)

    Robert Stack, Piper Laurie, Lee Marvin, Vic Damone, Dale Robertson and Joan Evans were all screen tested for various roles.

    James Whitmore played Gloria Grahame's father, despite being only two years older than her.

    Goofs
    When Laurey is singing "Many a New Day" in the bedroom, she puts her arms above her head. When she turns she is still singing but her mouth doesn't move.

    Continuity
    Laurie greets the female dancers on the porch in one shot and in the next shot they are shown just getting out of their buggies and carriages.

    In the scene near the end when people are bidding on the picnic baskets, when Curly makes the highest bid, Aunt Eller bangs the gavel SO hard that it breaks, to much laughter. it is fully intact in the next shot.

    When Laurie walks into her house when the crowd arrives before going to the Skidmore party, she hears the two girls talking about Curley. One girl's hair is in a long ponytail. The camera pans around the room, and when it goes back to Laurie and the two girls, the girl's hair is no longer in a ponytail.

    In the early scenes at Aunt Eller's, the corn disappears and reappears between shots.

    At the train station, Will Parker gets off the train and gives Aunt Eller a white box of something. Aunt Eller sits down on a bench and the camera shows her from the back, looking at Will. He says something like "let me show you guys something", to his other cowboy friends and starts to walk toward them. Aunt Eller puts the white box on the bench to her left and starts to stand up. In the shot immediately following, now showing the front of Aunt Eller, she puts the white box to her left and stands up again in the exact same way she did before.

    When Jud wakes Laurey from her dream sequence, to tell her it's time to go to the party, night has fallen and it's dark. She goes inside to change. In the next scene, they're heading off to the party with everyone else, in broad daylight.

    In the final "Oklahoma!" scene, everyone is gathered round outside Aunt Eller's house,with Curley and Laurie singing. Will Parker and Ado Annie slip in at the back but then they suddenly disappear and nobody notices.

    Crew or equipment visible
    When Will Parker is giving Ado Annie the "Oklahoma Hello," you can see a camera shadow as it pushes in on their kiss.

    In the beginning of the song "Oklahoma!" there's what appear to be a camera and camera operator shadow on Curly and Laurey as they sing "Brand New State."

    Errors in geography
    There are no mountains visible near Catoosa.

    Miscellaneous
    When the words "The End" appear a square section of the sky/clouds directly behind "The" suddenly moves upward.

    Memorable Quotes

    Filming Locations
    Amado, Arizona, USA
    ("Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'")
    Elgin, Arizona, USA
    (train station musical number scene)
    Green Cattle Co. Ranch, San Raphael Valley, Arizona, USA
    Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios - 10202 W. Washington Blvd., Culver City, California, USA
    Nogales, Arizona, USA
    San Rafael Ranch State Park, Patagonia, Arizona, USA
    (Greene Cattle Co. Ranch, San Rafael Valley, Arizona)

    Watch this Clip

    Best Wishes
    Keith
    Totnes- the Tombstone of England

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    Re: Western Musicals- Oklahoma! (1955)

    Oklahoma! is a 1955 musical film based on the 1943 musical play Oklahoma!,
    written by composer Richard Rodgers and lyricist/librettist Oscar Hammerstein II
    and starring Gordon MacRae, Shirley Jones (in her film debut), Rod Steiger,
    Charlotte Greenwood, Gloria Grahame, Gene Nelson,
    James Whitmore
    and Eddie Albert.
    The production was the first musical directed by Fred Zinnemann.
    Oklahoma! was the first feature film photographed in the Todd-AO 70 mm widescreen process.

    The film received a rave review from the New York Times
    and was voted a "New York Times Critics Pick".

    In 2007, Oklahoma! was selected for preservation
    in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress
    as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

    User Review
    28 January 2001 | by wrdiggs (Chesapeake, Virginia)
    After seeing OKLAHOMA! on the screen in Todd-AO for the first time 44 years ago, it immediately became my all-time favorite film. Today, it still holds that lofty ranking.

    The beautiful Rodgers & Hammerstein score includes some of the greatest music ever written. The two collaborated on nine broadway musicals, many of which were adapted to the screen, notably CAROUSEL, SOUTH PACIFIC, THE KING AND I, and THE SOUND OF MUSIC, but OKLAHOMA! tops them all.

    Gordon MacRae and Shirley Jones are perfectly cast as the young couple experiencing the magic of first love, and their singing of some of the show's classic tunes, such as "Surry With the Fringe On Top" and "People Will Say We're In Love" is a pleasure to listen to.

    Miss Jones, making her screen debut as Laurie Williams, instantly establishes her image of the "girl next door"--did I grow up in the wrong neighborhood? She is captivatingly charming as she tries to make Curly (MacRae) jealous by accepting a date to the box social with her Aunt Eller's hired farmhand, Jud Fry, played menacingly by Rod Steiger.

    It is the supporting cast of characters that really bring this musical to life--particularly Aunt Eller, played by Charlotte Greenwood. Doesn't everyone have an Aunt Eller in their life? Then there's Ado Annie Carnes (Gloria Grahame) and her longsuffering boyfriend Will Parker (Gene Nelson), who lights up the screen with a great dance number. Throw in a travelling salesman, Ali Hakim (Eddie Albert); Gertie Cummings (Barbara Lawrence), who tries to steal Curly away from Laurie; and Mr. Carnes (James Whitmore), who insists on a shotgun wedding for his daughter, Ado Annie, rather than see her marry Will; and you have some unforgettable characters indeed.

    The film's one dissenting note was the class distinction warfare between the handsome, clean-cut Curly, who everyone knows "Laurie has her cap set fer" and the rough and dirty, working-class Jud. Jud meets his untimely end, but, after all, he is the villain.

    Not to fear, it's a happy ending for all. Curly gets Laurie, Will gets Ado Annie, and Ali Hakim gets....Gertie? When Ado Annie and Gertie get into a jealous fight which Will attempts to break up, explaining "I'm trying to keep Ado Annie from killing your wife", Ali Hakim responds, "Why don't you mind your own business?" In the end, the farmer and the cowman do learn to get along and become friends, the new schoolhouse gets built, and the Oklahoma territory is about to become a state.

    OKLAHOMA! won two Oscars, for Best Sound Recording and Best Scoring of a Musical Picture. How could they go wrong with great orchestral direction by Robert Russell Bennett and the musical score by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II? The American theatre will never see their equal again.
    Last edited by ethanedwards; October 5th, 2012 at 05:16 AM.
    Best Wishes
    Keith
    Totnes- the Tombstone of England

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    Re: Western Musicals- Oklahoma! (1955)

    Ben Johnson worked on Oklahoma as a stunt man, wrangler and extra. It was the only work he was able to get after being away from Hollywood for more than a year pursuing and winning that world roping championship. At the end of the year, he was flat broke, despite his winnings, because he had paid the entry fees and expenses for his team roping partners and anyone else who assisted him.

    On Oklahoma, he taught Gordon MacRae how to ride well enough to look OK on camera. He doubled for Rod Steiger in the runaway wagon scene. I suspect that's him jumping from the train to the horse far off in the distance at the end of the "Kansas City" number but it's impossible to tell.

    As an extra, he is very clearly seen in the "Kansas City" number. In long shot, at the right hand side of the frame, he gallops up to the station with an extra horse he's bringing for the returning Will Parker, and then you can see him on the left hand side as one of the cowboys listening to Will sing about Kansas City, finally exiting to the right as the dance portion of the number begins. Ben also is one of the people who rushes up to Jud's shack after he and Curley shoot off their guns.

    He also rented cattle to the production.

    Two publicity stills from the "Kansas City" number.





    A screencap from the shooting scene at Jud's shack. Ben's on the left again.


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    Re: Western Musicals- Oklahoma! (1955)

    I've always liked this film very much.

    Although I personally was born in east Texas (Palestine), I was raised in southern Oklahoma and all of my immediate ancestors, including my mom and dad, were born and raised in Oklahoma. So I've more or less considered myself an Okie all my life (especially during football season )

    When I saw the movie, I was a GI stationed in Hawaii. For months after seeing it, the wife and I both hummed and sang much of the music comprising the score.
    De gustibus non est disputandum

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